Cassius Marcellus Clay: Courageous Fighter for Liberty

Black and white photograph of Cassius Marcellus Clay, a 19th-century American abolitionist, posing in formal attire with a stern expression.
Cassius Marcellus Clay, circa 1860

Cassius Marcellus Clay stood about 6’3”, tall and handsome, commanding and courageous. By birth, he was a wealthy man from an influential Southern family who enslaved people. But life took Cassius down a different path. As a college student at Yale in the late 1820s and early 1830s, he listened to speeches from abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. They made an impression.

Cassius graduated college and returned home with a newfound mindset, calling enslavement the “greatest evil that ever cursed a nation.”

“I am the avowed and uncompromising enemy of slavery and shall never cease to use all…means necessary to cause its extinction,” he said.

His loud voice for abolition brought him much vitriol in his home state of Kentucky. But more than just words, Cassius also dealt with attacks. In one debate, a man shot at Cassius. Cassius pulled out a knife he carried for self-defense and, though hit, was able to fight off his attacker. Similar incidents and duels happened multiple times. Yet, Cassius continued to be a staunch advocate against enslavement.

As he garnered support for the cause, Cassius also wanted to participate in public policy. He ran for and was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1835, where he would serve three terms. After this political work, he opened a newspaper advocating for abolition. Because of the consistent threats, Cassius had to barricade the doors to the office and add cannons inside. Even with that protection, a large mob stormed the office. Cassius moved the workspace to neighboring Ohio while he continued living in Kentucky.

These experiences of resistance and resilience prepared Cassius for the challenges he would face on the international stage. His unwavering commitment to justice and equality, honed in his abolitionist work, equipped him with the diplomatic finesse and moral fortitude necessary for his next role.

During the U.S. Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Cassius as the United States Minister to Russia, a role in which he served from 1861 to 1862 and again from 1863 to 1869. His diplomatic efforts there were instrumental in securing Russian support for the Union, which was an important factor in dissuading England and France from recognizing the Confederacy. Additionally, Cassius played a role in the negotiations that led to the United States’ purchase of Alaska in 1867.

In his later years, Cassius continued to be involved in various social and political causes, ardently advocating for equality and human rights. His passing away in 1903 at the age of 92 marked the end of a life dedicated to the betterment of society, both at home and abroad.


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  • To cite: “Cassius Marcellus Clay: A Courageous Fighter for Liberty.” Published by Historical Snapshots,


  • CLAY, Cassius Marcellus. Letters of Cassius M. Clay. Slavery: the evil-the remedy. United States, Greeley & McElrath, 1844.
  • Harrison, Lowell H. “THE ANTI-SLAVERY CAREER OF CASSIUS M. CLAY.” The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 59, no. 4, 1961, pp. 295–317. JSTOR, Accessed 11 Feb. 2024.
  • SMILEY, DAVID L. “CASSIUS M. CLAY AND SOUTHERN ABOLITIONISM.” The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 49, no. 169, 1951, pp. 331–36. JSTOR, Accessed 11 Feb. 2024.