Frances Louisa Clayton, better known as Jack Williams to the soldiers with whom she served, disguised herself as a man in order to fight for the Union Army in the American Civil War. She served in both cavalry and artillery regiments, and participated in eighteen battles, most alongside her husband until he perished at the Battle of Stones River.
An immigrant family at Ellis Island, 1904.
“Let the generations know that women in uniform also guaranteed their freedom.”
– Mary Edwards Walker, Medal of Honor recipient.
Mary was a doctor before the Civil War broke out in the U.S. She tried to join the Union Army as a surgeon when the war started, but was only offered the opportunity to be a nurse because of her gender. She declined and instead joined as a civilian volunteer to be a surgeon. In 1863, she became a War Department surgeon, a paid position.
“No, I don’t like it very much.”
– Callie Campbell, 11 years old, picks 75 to 125 pounds of cotton a day, and totes 50 pounds of it when sack gets full. Potawotamie County, Oklahoma, 1916.
Photographer: Lewis W. Hine